The whole world is vulnerable to one microscopic nonliving virus, the notorious Covid-19. The Covid-19 is a coronavirus (one of the crown viruses) but that is no royal attitude! This pandemic hit us almost a year ago and is still ongoing. With the second wave setting yet another period of strict rules and precautions, everyone is devastated, depressed and are cancelling more plans!
Scientists all over the world have been working on different vaccines. With over 50 candidates, only 11 vacancies made it as far as phase 2-3 (the final 2 phases before approval) and just 3 vaccines have been approved to date!
1- The Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine (Used in Canada, Europe.)
2- The Moderna mRNA vaccine (Used in Canada and limited in the U.S.)
3- The Sinopharm inactivated vaccine (Used in China, U.A.E., and Bahrain.)
What is the Vaccine testing process ?
1.Preclinical ( tests the vaccines on animals)
2.Phase I safety trials (tests the safety of the vaccine on tens of HEALTHY individuals)
3.Phase II expanded trials (tests the effectiveness and safety on more individuals (hundreds) )
4.Phase III efficacy trials ( more tests on effectiveness and side effects with monitoring on thousands of people)
5.Approval/ pausing/ or abandoned after approval
What are the types of covid-19 vaccines available now?
The three approved vaccines to date are either mRNA or inactivated vaccines. The inactivated vaccines are made by inactivating the virus by heat or chemicals, then injecting it into our bodies (most used type, same virus shape, no virus function!). The mRNA vaccine type is still very new, scientist only use a small piece of the viral genetic material (RNA) that codes for one protein (the harmless spikes of the virus!) to be introduced to our bodies.
How do the vaccines work?
The answer is: by triggering IMMUNITY! Both types of the covid-19 vaccines available show the shape or part of the shape of the virus! Once we take the vaccine, our immune system will recognize there is an intruder molecule, and will start producing antibodies to attack them. IF and WHEN we have to face the actual virus, our bodies will already have their stock of guns (antibodies) ready to attack it and get rid of it!
That’s briefly all about the infamous covid-19 vaccines, which have been hugely funded, and produced in a very short time! there is a debate however about which type is better: the old or the new technique, and another concern about the safety of the rapid vaccines. Would you take the covid-19 vaccine? If yes, then which one?!